Zooming in on self-regulated learning in undergraduate remote learning during extreme conditions

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Extreme conditions may require students to fine tune their remote online learning requiring knowledge about learning strategies. This form of knowledge may be captured by the term metaprocesses, which is defined as the knowledge and proficiency of cognitive (metacognition), emotional (metaemotion), and behavioral (metabehavior) learning strategies - and are hypothesized to shape learning outcomes. Undergraduate students were queried online during a COVID-19 lockdown (January 2021, N = 343, 62 and again a few months later during a period of missile attacks (May 2021, N = 214, 41 . Path models suggest that perceived stress moderated the associations between metaprocesses and achievement outcomes (self -regulated learning, emotions, and engagement) somewhat differently for male and female undergraduate students. Robust findings provided evidence that metaemotion was positively associated with reappraisal emotion regulation of learning and metacognition was positively associated with engagement. For students low on perceived stress, metaprocesses were associated with outcomes, providing evidence that high levels of stress intrudes on coursework. Cumulative effects were found for perceived stress during the lockdown positively associated with negative deactivated emotions during the missile attacks, and negatively associated with cognitive and behavioral strategies for females. Challenges of learning during crisis may be eased when students have knowledge and proficiency about their learning strategies, suggesting potential benefits for resilience -building skills as part of academic learning.
Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2024


  • Remote online learning
  • Perceived stress
  • Self -regulated learning
  • Emotions
  • Metacognition
  • Emergency


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