This article presents a novel, tripartite division of three seemingly identical structure types in terms of their aspectual differences: who believed, who believe and the believers. The debate on these three structures (a relative pronoun followed by a verb in the past or in the present and the agentive noun) pits the opposing views of those who advocate for their similarity and congruence (Reuschel 1996), and those who firmly believe that phonemic or syntactic differences definitely bring about differences at various levels (Bloomfield 1933). The contexts, exegeses and the relationship between 438 utterance components are analysed here. The results help disentangle the tight knot of long-standing sameness of these three types of structures. The who believed type is shown to express shades of aspect such as a) the constancy of the occurrence of an action, b) progressive actions explored retrospectively in the future such as Judgement Day and c) an action that was completed in the past. The who believe type is shown to go hand in hand with habitual or iterative aspects. The believers type allows for greater flexibility to combine the first two.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020 British Society for Middle Eastern Studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Earth-Surface Processes