The resolution of inflammation is a temporally and spatially coordinated process that in its innate manifestations, primarily involves neutrophils and macrophages. The shutdown of infection or injury-induced acute inflammation requires termination of neutrophil accumulation within the affected sites, neutrophil demise, and clearance by phagocytes (efferocytosis), such as tissue-resident and monocyte-derived macrophages. This must be followed by macrophage reprogramming from the inflammatory to reparative and consequently resolution-promoting phenotypes and the production of resolution-promoting lipid and protein mediators that limit responses in various cell types and promote tissue repair and return to homeostatic architecture and function. Recent studies suggest that these events, and macrophage reprogramming to pro-resolving phenotypes in particular, are not only important in the acute setting, but might be paramount in limiting chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, and various uncontrolled cytokine-driven pathologies. The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a worldwide health and economic crisis. Severe COVID-19 cases that lead to high morbidity are tightly associated with an exuberant cytokine storm that seems to trigger shock-like pathologies, leading to vascular and multiorgan failures. In other cases, the cytokine storm can lead to diffuse alveolar damage that results in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and lung failure. Here, we address recent advances on effectors in the resolution of inflammation and discuss how pro-resolution mechanisms with particular emphasis on macrophage reprogramming, might be harnessed to limit the universal COVID-19 health threat.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The manuscript was partially funded by the Israeli Science Foundation: grant No. 678/13 and by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP-102619).
Copyright © 2022 Silberberg, Filep and Ariel.
- macrophage reprogramming
- resolution of inflammation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy