Useful examples and a new model of the immune system

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It is central to the development of cognitive systems that they have in their environment certain examples that are both high frequency and generic to some general property of their interaction with the environment. We have called such examples Useful Examples and suggested that in order to understand cognitive systems and their capabilities we must study these examples. In the following pages I will use a model of immune cell repertoire dynamics in the immune response to pathogens as an illustration of this point. This model is based on the application to immunology of the theory of Useful Examples and on existing knowledge of immune dynamics. Its conclusions place self-reactivity at the basis of immune specificity of reaction, causing a paradigm shift in existing conceptions about immune functions and sensitivities. In closing I will go over conclusions about the general importance of Useful Examples in the study of cognitive systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763-773
Number of pages11
JournalRevue d'Intelligence Artificielle
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Cognitive systems
  • Complex systems
  • Development
  • Immunology
  • Learning
  • Self organization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Artificial Intelligence


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