Unequal access to cultural ecosystem services of green spaces within the city of Rome – A spatial social media-based analysis

Giulia Benati, Fulvia Calcagni, Federico Matellozzo, Andrea Ghermandi, Johannes Langemeyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This groundbreaking study sheds new light on the unequal distribution of cultural ecosystem services (CES) within Rome's urban green spaces (UGS). Employing a novel methodology, we assess UGS quality through georeferenced social media data from Twitter, evaluate the green cover of UGS, and assess accessibility to these spaces using network analysis in a GIS environment. This unique methodology allows us to unveil marked disparities in both UGS accessibility and the provision of CES. Unlike traditional approaches, our analysis provides a more nuanced understanding of UGS quality and accessibility. Our findings reveal areas with high UGS accessibility, yet limited CES provision. These insights are crucial for targeted urban planning interventions, advocating for a more equitable distribution of UGS benefits. This research challenges traditional green space planning with a focus on green space availability. Importantly, our study goes further by identifying specific disadvantaged areas, offering valuable insights for promoting equity in urban areas, emphasizing the importance of UGS quality and accessibility. Thereby, this research provides a foundation for a more nuanced, equal, and quality-driven approach to UGS planning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101594
JournalEcosystem Services
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Authors


  • Cultural ecosystem services
  • Environmental equality
  • Landscape and urban planning
  • Social media data analysis
  • Spatial accessibility
  • Urban green space

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Ecology
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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