Ultraminiature video-rate forward-view spectrally encoded endoscopy with straight axis configuration

Zhuo Wang, Tzu Yu Wu, Mark A. Hamm, Alexander Altshuler, Anderson T. Mach, Donald I. Gilbody, Bin Wu, Santosh N. Ganesan, James P. Chung, Mitsuhiro Ikuta, Jacob S. Brauer, Seiji Takeuchi, Tokuyuki Honda

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


As one of the smallest endoscopes that have been demonstrated, the spectrally encoded endoscope (SEE) shows potential for the use in minimally invasive surgeries. While the original SEE is designed for side-view applications, the forwardview (FV) scope is more desired by physicians for many clinical applications because it provides a more natural navigation. Several FV SEEs have been designed in the past, which involve either multiple optical elements or one optical element with multiple optically active surfaces. Here we report a complete FV SEE which comprises a rotating illumination probe within a drive cable, a sheath and a window to cover the optics, a customized spectrometer, hardware controllers for both motor control and synchronization, and a software suite to capture, process and store images and videos. In this solution, the optical axis is straight and the dispersion element, i.e. the grating, is designed such that the slightly focused light after the focusing element will be dispersed by the grating, covering forward view angles with high diffraction efficiencies. As such, the illumination probe is fabricated with a diameter of only 275 μm. The twodimensional video-rate image acquisition is realized by rotating the illumination optics at 30 Hz. In one finished design, the scope diameter including the window assembly is 1.2 mm.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEndoscopic Microscopy XII
EditorsGuillermo J. Tearney, Thomas D. Wang
ISBN (Electronic)9781510605213
StatePublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes
EventEndoscopic Microscopy XII - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 29 Jan 201730 Jan 2017

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


ConferenceEndoscopic Microscopy XII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 SPIE.


  • Endoscope
  • SEE
  • forward view
  • grating
  • spectrally encoded

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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