Transgenerational effects of infantile adversity and enrichment in male and female rats

Micah Leshem, Jay Schulkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To discover whether the accumulation of life's experiences, adverse and enriching, inform, and serve the following generation by inheritance we examine whether stress to a weanling female will influence her future offspring, whether prereproductive enrichment to the dam, or postweaning enrichment to the offspring, can reverse the transgenerational effects of stress, and whether, like adversity, enrichment might have transgenerational effects. Female rats were exposed to stressors when they were 27-29 days old. Half of these females and their controls were then raised in an enriched environment from weaning until mating at 60 days to examine whether preproduction enrichment reverses the effects of preproduction stress on offspring. Half of the offspring of each group were raised in an enriched environment after weaning, to see whether it reverses the effects of preproduction stress and buttresses prereproductive enrichment. Behavior was examined in 625 adult offspring in 16 groups covering all permutations of the experimental variables (preproduction weanling stress (PS), preproduction enrichment (PE), offspring enrichment (OE), sex). Exploration, avoidance learning, startle, and social interaction were tested. Results reveal that very early prereproductive experience in females, adverse or enriching, will transgenerationally influence their future offspring, depending on the behavior tested and sex. Our finding that enrichment, whether to the parent or offspring generation, can ameliorate the transgenerational impact of adversity, has novel implications for the malleability of transgenerational inheritance, and its individual, social, and therapeutic impact.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-186
Number of pages18
JournalDevelopmental Psychobiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2012


  • Adversity
  • Anxiety
  • Enriched environment
  • Rat
  • Sex differences
  • Social behavior
  • Transgenerational

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Developmental Biology


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