Towards a Definition of the pre-Classical Phoenician Temple

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Though our knowledge of Iron Age Phoenician cultic architecture is quite limited, the available data suggests that pre-Classical Phoenician temples followed a similar plan which displayed several unique architectural features. This plan originated from a long held, Bronze Age, Canaanite tradition which became especially prominent along the northern Levantine coast from the Middle Bronze Age II, appearing alongside other temple plans. This article aims to demonstrate that during the Iron Age and most of the Persian period, this temple plan became the predominant temple type in Phoenicia and its dependencies. It was only during the late Persian period, that a drastic change occurred, and this millennia-old plan was abandoned in favor of other temple types. Nevertheless, it appears that despite this seemingly radical change, the most notable feature of the traditional plan was preserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-205
Number of pages22
JournalPalestine Exploration Quarterly
Issue number3
StatePublished - 3 Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, © Palestine Exploration Fund 2018.


  • Iron Age
  • Persian
  • Phoenician
  • architecture
  • bent-entry
  • cultic
  • temple

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • History
  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts
  • Religious studies
  • Archaeology


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