Time Organization Patterns of Adolescents: Agreement between Self- Report and Parent Report

Liron Lamash, Tsameret Ricon, Sara Rosenblum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: Occupational therapy services include measurement and promotion of time organization as important for adolescents' daily life management and well-being into adulthood. This study examined the internal consistency reliability of the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) among adolescents and their parents, associations between time organization and age, gender differences in time organization, and agreement levels between adolescents' and parents' perceptions of time-organization abilities. Methods: Seventy-five adolescents with typical development and their parents completed the TOPS self-report and parent versions. Results: Both TOPS versions showed high internal consistency (.80–.94). No significant correlations were found between age and time-organization patterns. Girls self-reported significantly more emotional response following disorganization in time. Parents' total scores explained 52.1% of the variance in their children's total scores. Conclusions: Adolescence, a critical transitional period of preparing for independent adult life, involves a continual interaction between person, occupation, and environment while using skills to organize in time. The TOPS’s self- and parent-reports are reliable and can raise awareness of time-organization deficiencies in daily activities and emotional consequences. The use of the TOPS to assess adolescents’ time-organization abilities can inform intervention design to help adolescents develop an awareness of their time use and foster their daily performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-332
Number of pages14
JournalPhysical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank to the master's students in the department of occupational therapy, University of Haifa, Israel, who took part in this study The author(s) reported there is no funding associated with the work featured in this article.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Adolescents
  • TOPS questionnaire
  • gender
  • parents
  • time organization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Occupational Therapy


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