The theoretical and psychometric properties of the Subjective Traumatic Outlook (STO) questionnaire

Yuval Palgi, Amit Shrira, Menachem Ben-Ezra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present study aimed to develop the theoretical construct and examine the psychometric properties of a new scale for measuring subjective traumatic outlook (STO) among individuals exposed to traumatic events. The main idea behind this construct is to assess individual differences in the way people exposed to traumatic experiences subjectively perceive their trauma. Using four samples, we conducted five studies that examine the new questionnaire's exploratory/confirmatory factor analysis (EFA/CFA), test-retest reliability, and construct validity. The STO was best captured by a five-item factor construct. This construct was found to have good convergent validity with similar, related subjective evaluations of PTSD and PTSD-related constructs. Yet, the STO also has unique and divergent properties compared to other questionnaires. The STO is a new, short questionnaire with excellent psychometric properties. It may provide practitioners with a good screening tool for attaining first impression about one's inner traumatic world, and predicting future risk for developing PTSD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-173
Number of pages9
JournalPsychiatry Research
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017


  • Assessment
  • PTSD
  • Subjective Traumatic Outlook

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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