The Short Anxiety Screening Test in Greek: Translation and validation

Ilias A. Grammatikopoulos, Gary Sinoff, Athanasios Alegakis, Dimitrios Kounalakis, Maria Antonopoulou, Christos Lionis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Greek translation of the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST), for use in primary care settings. The scale consists of 10 items and is a brief clinician rating scale for the detection of anxiety disorder in older people, particularly, in the presence of depression.Methods: The study was performed in two rural primary care settings in Crete. The sample consisted of 99 older (76 ± 6.3 years old) people, who fulfilled the participating criteria. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was performed according to international standards. Internal consistency using the Cronbach α coefficient and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability of the tool. An exploratory factor analysis using Varimax with Kaiser normalisation (rotation method) was used to examine the structure of the instrument, and for the correlation of the items interitem correlation matrix was applied and assessed with Cronbach α.Results: Translation and backtranslation did not reveal any specific problems. The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the SAST scale in primary care were good. Internal consistency of the instrument was good, the Cronbach α was found to be 0.763 (P < 0.001) and ICC (95% CI) for reproducibility was found to be 0.763 (0.686 to 0.827). Factor analysis revealed three factors with eigenvalues >1.0 accounting for 60% of variance, while the Cronbach α was >0.7 for every item.Conclusions: The Greek translation of the SAST questionnaire is comparable with that of the original version in terms of reliability, and can be used in primary healthcare research. Its use in clinical practice should be primarily as a screening tool only at this stage, with a follow-up consisting of a detailed interview with the patient, in order to confirm the diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1
JournalAnnals of General Psychiatry
StatePublished - 5 Jan 2010
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding for this project was provided by a competitive grant through the Mental Health Institute of Chania, Greece. The authors would like to thank Dr Alexandro Lysimahou, Mrs Tereza Feeney and Mr Kypriano Sofra for their contribution in the forward and backward translations, and Mrs Adelais Markaki, Dr Sue Shea and Dr Paulos Theodorakis for their advice and consultation.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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