|Title of host publication||Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1, The Near and Middle East|
|Publisher||Brill Academic Publishers|
|Number of pages||222|
|State||Published - 2020|
|Name||Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1, The Near and Middle East|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
commander Jawhar set out from Egypt to conquer all of Palestine. Earlier examples under the Fāṭimid caliphate include that of the nagid Paltiel of Sicily (d. 357/967), who became an influential courtier of the caliph al-Muʿizz in Cairo, and Menashe b. Ibrāhīm al-Qazzāz, who was governor of Syria at the end of the fourth/tenth century. Jews achieved high positions in the Fāṭimid army as well: Faḍl b. Ṣāliḥ commanded the forces in Palestine until his execution in 400/1009 by the new caliph al-Ḥākim. Both al-Qazzāz and Faḍl were appointed by Ibn Killis. Under Fāṭimid rule, the Jewish communities (Rabbinic, Karaite, and Samaritans) in Palestine were financially supported by the authorities and their coreligionists in Egypt. As a result, the Jewish community in Palestine survived.84 2.10.3 An Alternative Caliph and Alternative Gaon The Fāṭimids chose to appoint a gaon in Jerusalem to head the Jewish community in Palestine and Egypt. Only later, after the Frankish conquest of Palestine, did they transfer the seat of the appointed Jewish leader, then called raʾīs al-yahūd, to Cairo. This appointment of the gaon from the yeshivah of Palestine is comparable to the situation in Iraq. Mark Cohen considers this an imitation of the Baghdadi appointment of the gaon from Babylonian Jewry.85 This thesis seems logical, based on the fact that the Fāṭimid caliph in Cairo sought to become an alternative to the caliph in Baghdad.
In May 2014, a purely Shīʿī organization appeared in Gaza; it did not attempt to conceal its religious identity, in fact, it is referred to as Ḥiṣn (lit., ‘castle’ or ‘fortress’), the acronym for Ḥarakat al-Ṣābirīn Naṣran li-Filasṭīn (‘The Patient People’s Movement for the support of Palestine). It was founded in 2014 by Hishām Sālim, a former member of Islamic Jihad. It has been supported and sponsored by Iran since then. The organization’s flag is similar to that of the Lebanese Hizbullah; it is a combination of the Arabic name of the organization, a globe with a hand holding a Kalashnikov starting from the letter alif in the middle of the name, with the Qurʾānic verse on it.113 Compare the flag of Lebanese Hizbullah on the left with that of the Palestinian Ṣābirīn on the right (see fig. 6).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cultural Studies
- Language and Linguistics
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)