The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between dark triad personality (DTP) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). In addition, the study also examined the main effects and the moderated relationship of four situational variables: organizational justice, organizational transparency, psychological contract breach, and perceived accountability. Data were collected at two hospitals in Beijing, China, and included 259 randomly selected nurses. The main effect results showed that nurses with higher levels of Machiavellianism demonstrated higher levels of organizational and interpersonal CWB. Furthermore, higher levels of psychopathy were related to higher levels of interpersonal CWB, but not organizational CWB. There was no relationship between narcissism and CWB. The main effect findings did not reveal any significant relationship between the four situational variables and CWB. However, the interaction analyses revealed five significant interactions that point to transparency as an important moderator. The paper concludes with conceptual as well as practical implications for the nursing profession.