Since current recommendations call for a substantial reduction in overall sodium consumption, we tested whether or not these recommendations are implemented in common large subpopulations such as those with abnormal weight or hypertension in the current high sodium, high-calorie nutritional environment. In a national representative cross-sectional survey of the community-dwelling subjects aged 25–65 years conducted in Israel between 2015 and 2017, 582 randomly selected subjects completed health and dietary questionnaires, underwent blood pressure and anthropometric measurements and collected 24-h urine specimens, to assess dietary sodium intake. Overall mean 24-h sodium excretion was 3834 mg, more than double the recommended upper intake for adults < 1500 mg/day. Sodium excretion was directly related to caloric intake and blood pressure and linked to the presence of hypertension and overweight/obesity. The highest sodium excretion was seen in overweight/obese hypertensive subjects. This recent national survey shows a high consumption of sodium in the Israeli population and a dose–response association between caloric intake and urinary sodium excretion, independent of BMI and hypertension. Nevertheless, overweight/obese subjects with hypertension consume (excrete) more sodium than other BMI/ blood pressure-related phenotypes and may thus comprise a target subpopulation for future efforts to reduce sodium intake.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Israel Ministry of Health.
© 2021, The Author(s).
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