The revised suicide crisis inventory (SCI-2): Validation and assessment of prospective suicidal outcomes at one month follow-up

Sarah Bloch-Elkouby, Shira Barzilay, Bernard S. Gorman, Olivia C. Lawrence, Megan L. Rogers, Jenelle Richards, Lisa J. Cohen, Benjamin N. Johnson, Igor Galynker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and Aim: The Suicide Crisis Syndrome (SCS) is an evidence-based pre-suicidal cognitive and affective state predictive of short-term suicide risk. The most recent SCS formulation, proposed as a suicide-specific DSM diagnosis, features a feeling of Entrapment accompanied by four additional symptom clusters: Affective Disturbance; Loss of Cognitive Control; Hyperarousal; and Social Withdrawal. The aim of the present study was to revise the Suicide Crisis Inventory (SCI; Barzilay et al., 2020), a self-report measure assessing the presence of the SCS,in accordance with the current SCS formulation, as well as to assess the psychometric properties and clinical utility of its revised version, the Suicide Crisis Inventory—2 (SCI-2). Methods: The SCI-2, a 61-item self-report questionnaire, was administered to 421 psychiatric inpatients and outpatients at baseline. Prospective suicidal outcomes including suicidal ideation, preparatory acts, and suicidal attempts were assessed after one month. Internal structure and consistency were assessed with confirmatory factor analysis, convergent, discriminant, and current criterion validity. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves with Area under the Curve (AUC) were used to examine the predictive validity of the SCI-2 to prospective outcomes. Exploratory analyses assessed the predictive validity of the five SCI-2 dimensions. Results: The SCI-2 demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.971), good convergent, discriminant, and current criterion validity. The SCI-2 significantly predicted all three outcomes, and was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempts with AUC = 0.883. Discussion: The results of this study indicate that the SCI-2 is a valid and reliable tool to assess the presence and intensity of the Suicide Crisis Syndrome and to predict short-term prospective suicidal behaviors and attempts among psychiatric outpatients and inpatients regardless of patients’ readiness to disclose suicidal ideation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1280-1291
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume295
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP) focus grant #RFA-1-015-14 (PI: Igor Galynker). The funding source did not have a role in the study design, analyses, interpretation, or decision to submit this manuscript for publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Risk assessment
  • Suicide Crisis Inventory-2
  • Suicide Crisis Syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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