According to traditional Arab and Western grammarians, kāna in clauses of the kāna llāhu ʻalīman raḥīman type expresses an action in the present or at no specific time, having started in the past and still continuing. Clauses of this type reveal various aspects of God's nature and share one notion: God is not limited by time or space and is eternal. My examination showed that in some cases kāna indeed has a perfective meaning, something that does not necessarily contradict God's infinity because kāna has two references: to a past action (mentioned in the verse or implied by Qur’ānic exegetes) and still to the circumstance that enabled this action’s occurrence. For example, in Q 33:9 the implied past event is the triumph of the Muslims in the battle of the Trench. This happened because God saw (kāna llāhu baṣīran) the Muslims’ effort before and during the battle, digging ditches and devising their military strategy.
|Number of pages||23|
|Journal||International Journal of Arabic Linguistics|
|State||Published - 2017|
- Clauses of the kāna llāhu ʻalīman raḥīmsan type
- Perfective indication
- Time boundaries
- Circumstance and action