The mental health of children and adolescents exposed to 9/11: Lessons learned and still to be learned

Talya Greene, Raz Gross, Lawrence Amsel, Christina W. Hoven

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The mental health effects of 9/11 on children and adolescents have often been viewed through the same lens as the effects on adults. Yet, children differ from adults in multiple ways and have specific vulnerabilities and dependencies that can moderate the impact of exposure to disasters. This chapter provides an overview of the studies that investigated psychopathological outcomes attributed to the attack on the World Trade Center among youth ages 0-18 years on 9/11 in order to identify which categories of youth were most affected, how they were affected, and which risk factors contributed to these outcomes. The chapter considers the effects of 9/11 not only on those in close proximity to the World Trade Center but also those who were indirectly exposed through their families, as well as those exposed through the media. This body of research is critically evaluated, evaluating which lessons have been learned, what has been missed, and how we might better protect our youth in the future, in the face of mass trauma.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWorld Trade Center Pulmonary Diseases and Multi-Organ System Manifestations
EditorsA. Szema
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9783319593722
ISBN (Print)9783319593715
StatePublished - 29 Sep 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer International Publishing AG 2018. All rights reserved.


  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Secondary trauma
  • Substance abuse
  • Terror
  • Vicarious trauma
  • Youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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