The landlocked location of several post-Soviet states has significantly constrained their foreign policy options, helping shape their foreign policy orientations. This article asks how lack of sea access has influenced foreign policy patterns of these states. Three case studies, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan, are detailed. Based on field research, including interviews with policy makers, the case studies are used to look at maneuverability in foreign policy as well as how geographic proximity to the sea seems to be an important dividing line, distinguishing the foreign policy orientations of the new states, especially in terms of integration and cooperation with Europe and the United States, and relationships with Russia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sociology and Political Science
- Economics and Econometrics
- Political Science and International Relations