The Exon 3-Deleted Growth Hormone Receptor (d3GHR) Polymorphism—A Favorable Backdoor Mechanism for the GHR Function

Ghadeer Falah, Lital Sharvit, Gil Atzmon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone that plays a crucial role in controlling growth, development, and lifespan. Molecular regulation of GH is accomplished via the GH receptor (GHR), which is the main factor influencing human development and is essential to optimal functioning of the GH/IGF-I axis. Two GHR isoforms have been studied, according to the presence (flGHR) or absence (d3GHR) of exon 3. The d3GHR isoform, which lacks exon 3 has recently been related to longevity; individuals carrying this isoform have higher receptor activity, improved signal transduction, and alterations in the treatment response and efficacy compared with those carrying the wild type (WT) isoform (flGHR). Further, studies performed in patients with acromegaly, Prader–Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, small for gestational age (SGA), and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) suggested that the d3GHR isoform may have an impact on the relationship between GH and IGF-I levels, height, weight, BMI, and other variables. Other research, however, revealed inconsistent results, which might have been caused by confounding factors, including limited sample sizes and different experimental methods. In this review, we lay out the complexity of the GHR isoforms and provide an overview of the major pharmacogenetic research conducted on this ongoing and unresolved subject.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13908
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number18
StatePublished - 10 Sep 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • deletion of exon 3
  • growth and development
  • growth hormone receptor
  • hormone deficiency
  • human growth hormone
  • polymorphism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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