The effects of encoding fluency and retrieval fluency on judgments of learning

Asher Koriat, Hilit Ma'ayan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigated the heuristic bases of judgments of learning (JOLs). JOLs were elicited either immediately after study or after a shorter or longer delay. In Experiment 1, the effects of encoding fluency (inferred from self-paced study time) on both JOLs and recall decreased with JOL delay, whereas those of retrieval fluency (inferred from the success and latency of pre-JOL retrieval) increased. In this experiment, JOLs (as well as recall) decreased with increasing study time, presumably under the heuristic that items requiring more time to study are less likely to be recalled. In contrast, in Experiment 2, in which study time was experimentally manipulated, JOLs as well as recall actually increased with study time. In both experiments JOLs increased with retrieval fluency. The results demonstrate that JOLs are based on the flexible and adaptive utilization of different mnemonic cues according to their relative validity in predicting memory performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)478-492
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Memory and Language
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2005

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was carried out at the Institute of Information Processing and Decision Making, University of Haifa. It was supported by a grant from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the framework of German-Israeli Project Cooperation (DIP). We are grateful to Rinat Gil for her help in conducting the experiments, and to Limor Sheffer for her advice in the statistical analyses.


  • Delayed JOLs
  • Encoding fluency
  • Heuristics
  • Judgments of learning
  • Metacognition
  • Retrieval fluency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Artificial Intelligence


Dive into the research topics of 'The effects of encoding fluency and retrieval fluency on judgments of learning'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this