The Effects of a Novel Mindfulness-based Intervention on Nurses’ State Mindfulness and Patient Satisfaction in the Emergency Department

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Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a novel mindfulness-based time-out intervention on state of mindfulness among emergency nurses and, accordingly, on patient satisfaction. Methods: A pre-post intervention design among nurses in the emergency department was used with a between-subjects factor of patients who were nested within each nurse. The study was conducted between January 2017 and June 2018 among 48 nurses in the emergency department of a public tertiary academic hospital. For each nurse, a consecutive sample of 20 patients who attended the emergency department was recruited (n = 1920 patients; 960 in each phase). The mindfulness-based time-out intervention was based on theoretical mindfulness principles and carried out every 4 hours with direct communication to the patient at their bedside. Nurses’ sociodemographic and professional characteristics and trait mindfulness were collected preintervention. Pre- and postintervention, data was collected on patients’ sociodemographic and satisfaction, nurses’ state mindfulness, and ED workload. Results: An increase in nurses’ state mindfulness and patients’ satisfaction was found after the mindfulness-based time-out intervention compared with before the intervention (4.35 [SD = 0.64] vs 4.03 [0.82], P <.001 and 4.03 [0.41] vs 3.16 [0.44], P <.001, respectively). A positive correlation was found between patients’ satisfaction and nurses’ state mindfulness (r = 0.29, P <.001). The findings also demonstrated that state mindfulness was higher among nurses, characterized by high trait mindfulness, after the mindfulness-based time-out intervention implementation. Discussion: By adapting mindfulness principles to the dynamic environment of the emergency department, we showed that the mindfulness-based time-out intervention was associated with a significant improvement in state mindfulness and patient satisfaction. The findings elucidate the interrelation among several conceptualizations of mindfulness that are increasingly reported in the literature, namely trait and state mindfulness, and interventions to promote mindfulness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)412-425
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Emergency Nursing
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Emergency Nurses Association


  • Emergency department
  • Mindfulness intervention
  • Patient satisfaction
  • State mindfulness
  • Trait mindfulness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency


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