The Effect of Speed–Accuracy Trade-Off on Attribute-Framing Bias

Hamutal Kreiner, Eyal Gamliel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Attribute-framing bias reflects people’s tendency to evaluate objects framed positively more favorably than the same objects framed negatively. Although biased by the framing valence, evaluations are nevertheless calibrated to the magnitude of the target attribute. In three experiments that manipulated magnitudes in different ways, we examined to what extent encouraging speeded or accurate responses affected the bias of evaluations and their calibration. Results revealed a dissociation between the biasing effect of framing valence and the calibrated effect of magnitude. The bias was increased in the speeded conditions relative to the accurate conditions. However, the calibration was affected by the speed–accuracy manipulation only in negative and not in positive framing conditions. We discuss the advantage of fuzzy-trace theory in explaining these results, suggesting that gist representations elicit the bias, whereas verbatim representations allow calibration.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition
StateAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Psychological Association


  • attribute framing
  • fuzzy-trace theory
  • gist and verbatim representations
  • speed–accuracy tradeoff
  • task-calibration principle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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