Macrophages are some of the most important immune cells in the organism and are responsible for creating an inflammatory immune response in order to inhibit the passage of microscopic foreign bodies into the blood stream. Sometimes, their activation can be responsible for chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tuberculosis, hepatitis, sinusitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and viral infections. Prolonged inflammation can damage the organs or may lead to death in serious conditions. In the present study, RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 ng/mL) and simultaneously treated with 20 µg/mL of natural-based formulation (NBF), mushroom–cannabidiol extract). Pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other inflammatory markers were analyzed. The elevations in the presence of interleukin-6 (IL-6), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), C-C motif ligand-5 (CCL5), and nitrite response, following exposure to LPS, were completely inhibited by NBF administration. IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release were inhibited by 3.9-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. No toxic effect of NBF, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, was observed. Treatment of the cells with NBF significantly increased the mRNA levels of TLR2, and TLR4, but not NF-κB. Thus, it appears that the NBF possesses anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects which can attenuate the release of pro-inflammatory markers. NBF may be a candidate for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases and deserves further investigation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by Cannabotech company, Herzliya, Israel.For this paper, we would like to thank Cannabotech Ltd. R&D team and BCF-facility of Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine.
Funding: This study was supported by Cannabotech company, Herzliya, Israel.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- medicinal mushrooms
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Plant Science
- Microbiology (medical)