The difference between inpatient and outpatient programs regarding trait -anxiety, social support and state-anxiety in during the covid-19 pandemic in Israel

Amnon Michael, Paola Roska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the well-being and the psychological resilience of different populations, particularly in the addiction field. This study aims to assess anxiety and its severity among patients and staff from different types of addiction services in Israel during this emergency. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted during the period from March–July 2020. Participants included patients and staff (N = 282) from three different types of addiction services, were administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support and demographic variables. In addition, a logistic regression model was applied to identify predictors of state anxiety by using statistical package for the social sciences software. Findings: The results show that therapeutic communities clients reported more social support compared to other subjects. State anxiety has a positive strong correlation with trait anxiety both among patients and staff, and it was found as a crucial predictor of state anxiety in the regression equation. There is no statistically significant correlation between state anxiety and social support, gender or education among clients and staff as one. The state anxiety remains relatively stable and characterizes most people, staff and patients, men and women, medical staff members and other professionals. Research limitations/implications: The current study has some contributions to the addiction field by understanding the psychological distress of a vulnerable population: substance users in treatment settings. The study population relied on convenient samples and future studies should be planned using a cross-sectional design and should take into account substance use measures. The findings are reinforcing the assumption that state anxiety was likely to increase during the coronavirus pandemic. Practical implications: Adequate services should be planned to avoid relapse or mental deterioration of people who use drugs during health emergencies. Originality/value: The research points out the unique and real difficulties of SUD clients, as well as the complexity and risks in their staff members’ works. The authors also saw that staff members need attention and maintenance; they are in the front line.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-24
Number of pages13
JournalTherapeutic Communities
Issue number1
StatePublished - 6 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.


  • COVID-19
  • Early intervention
  • Early interventions
  • PWUDs
  • Social support
  • TCs
  • Therapeutic community
  • Trait state anxiety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatric Mental Health
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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