The delicate issues of addition with respect to XOR differences

Gaoli Wang, Nathan Keller, Orr Dunkelman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


In this paper we analyze the previous attacks on the block cipher SHACAL-1 and show that all the differential-based attacks fail due to mistreatment of XOR differences through addition. We show that the previously published differential and rectangle attacks on SHACAL-1 fail as some of the underlying differentials are impossible. The relatedkey rectangle attacks on the cipher generally fail, but if some conditions are imposed on the key (i.e., for a weak key class) they work. After identifying the flaws in previous attacks, we present possible fixes to these attacks. We then present some modified differentials which lead to a related-key rectangle attack which can be applied to 2504 weak keys. Our observations are then used to improve a related-key rectangle attack on IDEA by a factor of 2.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSelected Areas in Cryptography - 14th International Workshop, SAC 2007, Revised Selected Papers
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)3540773592, 9783540773597
StatePublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes
Event14th International Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography, SAC 2007 - Ottawa, Canada
Duration: 16 Aug 200717 Aug 2007

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume4876 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference14th International Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography, SAC 2007


  • Block cipher
  • IDEA
  • Related-key rectangle attack
  • SHACAL-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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