Testing Practices and Attitudes Toward Tests and Testing: An International Survey

Arne Evers, Carina M. McCormick, Leslie R. Hawley, José Muñiz, Giulia Balboni, Dave Bartram, Dusica Boben, Jens Egeland, Karma El-Hassan, José R. Fernández-Hermida, Saul Fine, Örjan Frans, Grazina Gintiliené, Carmen Hagemeister, Peter Halama, Dragos Iliescu, Aleksandra Jaworowska, Paul Jiménez, Marina Manthouli, Krunoslav MatesicLars Michaelsen, Andrew Mogaji, James Morley-Kirk, Sándor Rózsa, Lorraine Rowlands, Mark Schittekatte, H. Canan Sümer, Tono Suwartono, Tomáš Urbánek, Solange Wechsler, Tamara Zelenevska, Svetoslav Zanev, Jianxin Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


On behalf of the International Test Commission and the European Federation of Psychologists' Associations a world-wide survey on the opinions of professional psychologists on testing practices was carried out. The main objective of this study was to collect data for a better understanding of the state of psychological testing worldwide. These data could guide the actions and measures taken by ITC, EFPA, and other stakeholders. A questionnaire was administered to 20,467 professional psychologists from 29 countries. Five scales were constructed relating to: concern over incorrect test use, regulations on tests and testing, internet and computerized testing, appreciation of tests, and knowledge and training relating to test use. Equivalence across countries was evaluated using the alignment method, four scales demonstrated acceptable levels of invariance. Multilevel analysis was used to determine how scores were related to age, gender, and specialization, as well as how scores varied between countries. Although the results show a high appreciation of tests in general, the appreciation of internet and computerized testing is much lower. These scales show low variability over countries, whereas differences between countries on the other reported scales are much greater. This implies the need for some overarching improvements as well as country-specific actions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-190
Number of pages33
JournalInternational Journal of Testing
Issue number2
StatePublished - 3 Apr 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis © 2017, © The Authors.


  • European Federation of Psychologists' Associations
  • International Test Commission
  • psychological testing
  • test use
  • testing practices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Modeling and Simulation


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