In various eukaryotes, supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are an optional genomic component that affect their integrity and functioning. In the present study, the impact of Bs on the current changes in the genome of goatgrass, Aegilops speltoides, was addressed. Individual plants from contrasting populations with and without Bs were explored using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In parallel, abundances of the Ty1-copia, Ty3-gypsy, and LINE retrotransposons (TEs), and the species-specific Spelt1 tandem repeat (TR) in vegetative and generative spike tissues were estimated by real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed: (i) ectopic associations between Bs and the regular A chromosomes, and (ii) cell-specific rearrangements of Bs in both mitosis and microgametogenesis. Further, the copy numbers of TEs and TR varied significantly between (iii) genotypes and (iv) different spike tissues in the same plant(s). Finally, (v) in plants with and without Bs from different populations, genomic abundances and/or copy number dynamics of TEs and TR were similar. These findings indicate that fluctuations in TE and TR copy numbers are associated with DNA damage and repair processes during cell proliferation and differentiation, and ectopic recombination is one of the mechanisms by which Bs play a role in genome changes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was financially supported by the Israel Science Foundation under grant number 723/07 for O.R.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Aegilops speltoides
- B chromosome
- Ectopic recombination
- Genome evolution
- Retrotransposon copy numbers
- Somatic recombination
- Tandem repeats
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry