SU-E-J-148: Tools for Development of 4D Proton CT

T Dou, J Ramos-Mendez, P Piersimoni, V Giacometti, S. N. Penfold, Yair Censor, B Faddegon, D Low, Reinhard W. Schulte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To develop tools for performing 4D proton computed tomography (CT). Methods: A suitable patient with a tumor in the right lower lobe was selected from a set of 4D CT scans. The volumetric CT images formed the basis for calculating the parameters of a breathing model that allows reconstruction of a static reference CT and CT images in each breathing phase. The images were imported into the TOPAS Monte Carlo simulation platform for simulating an experimental proton CT scan with 45 projections spaced by 4 degree intervals. Each projection acquired data for 2 seconds followed by a gantry rotation for 2 seconds without acquisition. The scan covered 180 degrees with individual protons passing through a 9-cm slab of the patient's lung covering the moving tumor. An initial proton energy sufficient for penetrating the patient from all directions was determined. Performing the proton CT simulation, TOPAS provided output of the proton energy and coordinates registered in two planes before and after the patient, respectively. The set of projection data was then used with an iterative reconstruction algorithm to generate a volumetric proton CT image set of the static reference image and the image obtained under breathing motion, respectively. Results: An initial proton energy of 230 MeV was found to be sufficient, while for an initial energy of 200 MeV a substantial number of protons did not penetrate the patient. The reconstruction of the static reference image set provided sufficient detail for treatment planning. Conclusion: We have developed tools to perform studies of proton CT in the presence of lung motion based on the TOPAS simulation toolkit. This will allow to optimize 4D reconstruction algorithms by synchronizing the acquired proton CT data with a breathing signal and utilizing a breathing model obtained prior to the proton CT scan. This research has been supported by the National Institute Of Biomedical Imaging And Bioengineering of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01EB013118.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3298-3299
Number of pages2
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number6, Part 9
StatePublished - 29 Jun 2015


  • Protons
  • Computed tomography
  • Medical image reconstruction
  • Cancer
  • Lungs
  • Medical treatment planning
  • Biomedical modeling
  • Computer modeling
  • Monte Carlo methods


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