Statistical modeling to promote students’ aggregate reasoning with sample and sampling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


While aggregate reasoning is a core aspect of statistical reasoning, its development is a key challenge in statistics education. In this study we examine how students’ aggregate reasoning with samples and sampling (ARWSS) can emerge in the context of statistical modeling activities of real phenomena. We present a case study on the emergent ARWSS of two pairs of sixth graders (age 11–12) involved in statistical data analysis and informal inference utilizing TinkerPlots. The students’ growing understandings of various statistical concepts is described and five perceptions the students expressed are identified. We discuss the contribution of modeling to these progressions followed by conclusions and limitations of these results. While idiosyncratic, the insights contribute to the understanding of students’ aggregate reasoning with data and models, with regards to samples and sampling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1165-1181
Number of pages17
JournalZDM - International Journal on Mathematics Education
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, FIZ Karlsruhe.


  • Aggregate statistical reasoning
  • Exploratory data analysis
  • Informal statistical inference
  • Sample and sampling
  • Statistical model and modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • General Mathematics


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