State of the art and challenges for offshore Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA)

Bela H. Buck, Max F. Troell, Gesche Krause, Dror L. Angel, Britta Grote, Thierry Chopin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


By moving away from coastal waters and hence reducing pressure on nearshore ecosystems, offshore aquaculture can be seen as a possible step towards the large-scale expansion of marine food production. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in nearshore water bodies has received increasing attention and could therefore play a role in the transfer of aquaculture operations to offshore areas. IMTA holds scope for multi-use of offshore areas and can bring environmental benefits from making use of waste products and transforming these into valuable co-products. Furthermore, they may act as alternative marine production systems and provide scope for alternative income options for coastal communities, e.g., by acting as nodes for farm operation and maintenance requirements. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on the implications of the exposed nature of offshore and open ocean sites on the biological, technological and socio-economic performance of IMTA. Of particular interest is improving knowledge about resource flows between integrated species in hydrodynamic challenging conditions that characterize offshore waters.

Original languageEnglish
Article number165
Pages (from-to)1-21
JournalFrontiers in Marine Science
Issue numberMAY
StatePublished - 15 May 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Buck, Troell, Krause, Angel, Grote and Chopin.


  • Extractive species
  • IMTA
  • Multi-use
  • Offshore aquaculture
  • Open ocean aquaculture
  • Socio-economic factors
  • Sustainable aquaculture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Ocean Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'State of the art and challenges for offshore Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this