State mindfulness scale (SMS): Development and initial validation

Galia Tanay, Amit Bernstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The goal of the present research was to develop and test a novel conceptual model and corresponding measure of state mindfulness-the State Mindfulness Scale (SMS). We developed the SMS to reflect traditional Buddhist and contemporary psychological science models of mindfulness not similarly reflected in extant published measures of the construct. Study 1 exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a higher order 2-factor solution encompassing 1 second-order state mindfulness factor, and 2 first-order factors, one reflecting state mindfulness of bodily sensations and the other state mindfulness of mental events. Study 2 provided cross-sectional evidence of the convergent, discriminant, and incremental convergent validity of SMS scores with respect to other measures of state and trait mindfulness. Study 3, a randomized control experimental mindfulness intervention study, yielded a number of key findings with respect to SMS stability as a function of time and context, construct validity, incremental sensitivity to change in state mindfulness over time, and incremental predictive criterionrelated validity. Findings are discussed with respect to the potential contribution of the SMS to the study of mindfulness as a statelike mental behavior, biopsychobehavioral research on the mechanisms of mindfulness, and clinical evaluation of mindfulness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1286-1299
Number of pages14
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • Assessment
  • Mindfulness
  • State Mindfulness Scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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