Different subtypes of macrophages have been shown to participate in different stages of inflammation and tissue repair. In the late stage of tissue repair, the macrophages, following their engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils, acquire a new phenotype termed alternatively activated macrophages. These macrophages produce growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), that facilitate the angiogenic response as part of tissue restoration. Then, in the later stages of tissue healing, capillary regression takes place. It is presently unknown whether macrophages play an antiangiogenic role in the final stages of tissue repair. Here, we examined whether soluble mediators secreted by pro-resolving CD11blow macrophages (Mres) inhibit angiogenesis in the context of the resolution of tissue repair. Our findings indicate that soluble mediators produced by ex vivo generated Mres (CM-Mres) attenuate angiogenesis in vitro by inhibiting human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation by lowering their cyclin D1 expression. In addition, CM-Mres lowered HUVEC survival by inducing caspase 3/7 activation, and also inhibited VEGFR2 activation via VEGF. HUVEC migration and differentiation to tubular-like structure was also inhibited by CM-Mres. Similarly, CM-Mres significantly inhibited neovascularization as depicted ex vivo by utilizing the rat aorta ring assay and in vivo by utilizing the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Notably endostatin, which was shown previously to exert its antiangiogenic effect by inhibiting proliferation, survival, motility, and morphogenesis of endothelial cells via inhibition of VEGFR2 activation, is produced by Mres. Taken together, our results suggest that a specialized subset of macrophages that appear during the resolution of inflammation can produce antiangiogenic mediators, such as endostatin. These mediators can halt angiogenesis, thereby restoring tissue structure.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Dr. Amiram Ariel for the use of FACSCanto II (BD) equipment, Dr. Ram Reshef for assisting with the CAM assay and Dr. Haim Shapiro and Shany Barkan for reviewing the manuscript.This research was supported by the British and Swiss friends of University of Haifa, University of Haifa seed money (DB), and by John Templeton Foundation (grant # 53057; AM and IS)
© 2018 Michaeli, Dakwar, Weidenfeld, Granski, Gilon, Schif-Zuck, Mamchur, Shams and Barkan.
- Antiangiogenic factors
- Resolution of inflammation
- Tissue repair
- pro-resolving macrophages
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy