Smoking motives in the prediction of affective vulnerability among young adult daily smokers

Kristin Gregor, Michael J. Zvolensky, Amit Bernstein, Erin C. Marshall, Andrew R. Yartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The primary aim of this study was to examine whether smoking to reduce negative affect was uniquely related to a range of affective vulnerability factors (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, anxious arousal, and negative affectivity) among daily smokers. Participants were 276 young adult daily smokers (124 females; Mage = 25.12, SD = 10.37). Partially consistent with prediction, the motivation to smoke to reduce negative affect was significantly related to anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity, but not anxious arousal; the observed significant effects were above and beyond other theoretically relevant factors (e.g., smoking rate, years smoked, age, gender). In contrast to prediction, habitual smoking motives demonstrated significant incremental associations with anxiety sensitivity and anxious arousal symptoms. These results suggest that there are important associations between certain smoking motives and negative affective states and that such relations are not attributable to other smoking factors (e.g., smoking rate).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-482
Number of pages12
JournalBehaviour Research and Therapy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2007
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This paper was supported by National Institute on Drug Abuse research Grants (1 R01 DA018734-01A1, R03 DA16307-01, and 1 R21 DA016227-01) awarded to Dr. Zvolensky. This work also was supported by a National Research Service Award (F31 MH073205-01) awarded to Amit Bernstein.


  • Anxiety
  • Anxiety sensitivity
  • Depression
  • Motivation
  • Smoking
  • Young adult

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology


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