The gap between what learners can do and what they actually do can be narrowed down to a great extent by the notion of mindfulness. This construct is defined as the volitional, metacognitively guided employment of non-automatic, usually effortful processes. Mindfulness is a mid-level construct which reflects a voluntary state of mind, and connects among motivation, cognition, and learning. It is both a general tendency and a response to situational demands. This dimension of mindfulness-mindlessness, plays various important roles in different kinds of learning and transfer situations, and for different kinds of learners. Theoretical, operational, and educational implications of this dimension are discussed.
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