Simultaneous Minimization of Water Age and Pressure in Water Distribution Systems by Pressure Reducing Valves

Kristina Korder, Hao Cao, Elad Salomons, Avi Ostfeld, Pu Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Pressure reducing valves (PRVs) are essentially used to reduce operational pressures in water distribution systems (WDSs) to minimize water leakage. However, water age in a WDS is an important variable describing the water quality and should be kept as low as possible. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the possibility and potential of simultaneously minimizing both pressure and water age by using PRVs. To determine the optimal location and setting of PRVs, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem is formulated with minimization of the sum of the weighted total water age and pressure as the objective function, where the weighting factor can be defined by the user’s preference. The equality constraints consist of the hydraulic equations and water age functions to describe pressure and water age in the distribution network, while the inequality constraints ensure them in the defined operating ranges, respectively. Applying the proposed approach to two case studies, the results show that both water age and pressure can indeed be significantly reduced by the optimized position and setting of the PRVs.

Original languageEnglish
JournalWater Resources Management
StateAccepted/In press - 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.


  • Optimization
  • PRV placement
  • Water age
  • Water pressure
  • WDS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology


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