## Abstract

Håstad showed that any De Morgan formula (composed of AND, OR and NOT gates) shrinks by a factor of O(p^{2}) under a random restriction that leaves each variable alive independently with probability p [SICOMP, 1998]. Using this result, he gave an Ω(^{e} n^{3}) formula size lower bound for the Andreev function, which, up to lower order improvements, remains the state-of-the-art lower bound for any explicit function. In this work, we extend the shrinkage result of Håstad to hold under a far wider family of random restrictions and their generalization – random projections. Based on our shrinkage results, we obtain an Ω(^{e} n^{3}) formula size lower bound for an explicit function computed in AC^{0}. This improves upon the best known formula size lower bounds for AC^{0}, that were only quadratic prior to our work. In addition, we prove that the KRW conjecture [Karchmer et al., Computational Complexity 5(3/4), 1995] holds for inner functions for which the unweighted quantum adversary bound is tight. In particular, this holds for inner functions with a tight Khrapchenko bound. Our random projections are tailor-made to the function’s structure so that the function maintains structure even under projection – using such projections is necessary, as standard random restrictions simplify AC^{0} circuits. In contrast, we show that any De Morgan formula shrinks by a quadratic factor under our random projections, allowing us to prove the cubic lower bound. Our proof techniques build on the proof of Håstad for the simpler case of balanced formulas. This allows for a significantly simpler proof at the cost of slightly worse parameters. As such, when specialized to the case of p-random restrictions, our proof can be used as an exposition of Håstad’s result.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference, ITCS 2021 |

Editors | James R. Lee |

Publisher | Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9783959771771 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Feb 2021 |

Event | 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference, ITCS 2021 - Virtual, Online Duration: 6 Jan 2021 → 8 Jan 2021 |

### Publication series

Name | Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs |
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Volume | 185 |

ISSN (Print) | 1868-8969 |

### Conference

Conference | 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference, ITCS 2021 |
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City | Virtual, Online |

Period | 6/01/21 → 8/01/21 |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:Funding Yuval Filmus: Taub Fellow – supported by the Taub Foundations. The research was funded by ISF grant 1337/16. Or Meir: Partially supported by the Israel Science Foundation (grant No. 1445/16).

Publisher Copyright:

© Yuval Filmus, Or Meir, and Avishay Tal.

## Keywords

- Bounded depth circuits
- Constant depth circuits
- De morgan formulas
- Formula complexity
- KRW conjecture
- Random projections
- Random restrictions
- Shrinkage

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Software