Short-term test-retest reliability of resting state fMRI metrics in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Krishna Somandepalli, Clare Kelly, Philip T. Reiss, Xi Nian Zuo, R. C. Craddock, Chao Gan Yan, Eva Petkova, F. X. Castellanos, Michael P. Milham, Adriana Di Martino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To date, only one study has examined test-retest reliability of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) in children, none in clinical developing groups. Here, we assessed short-term test-retest reliability in a sample of 46 children (11-17.9 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 57 typically developing children (TDC). Our primary test-retest reliability measure was the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), quantified for a range of R-fMRI metrics. We aimed to (1) survey reliability within and across diagnostic groups, and (2) compare voxel-wise ICC between groups. We found moderate-to-high ICC across all children and within groups, with higher-order functional networks showing greater ICC. Nearly all R-fMRI metrics exhibited significantly higher ICC in TDC than in children with ADHD for one or more regions. In particular, posterior cingulate and ventral precuneus exhibited group differences in ICC across multiple measures. In the context of overall moderate-to-high test-retest reliability in children, regional differences in ICC related to diagnostic groups likely reflect the underlying pathophysiology for ADHD. Our currently limited understanding of the factors contributing to inter- and intra-subject variability in ADHD underscores the need for large initiatives aimed at examining their impact on test-retest reliability in both clinical and developing populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-93
Number of pages11
JournalDevelopmental Cognitive Neuroscience
StatePublished - 2 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grants from National Institute of Mental Health ( K23MH087770 to ADM; R01MH081218 to FXC; 5U01MH099059 to MPM); from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ( R01HD065282 to FXC ), the Stavros Niarchos Foundation (FXC and MPM); the Leon Levy Foundation (MPM, ADM, and CK); as well as the Major Joint Fund for International Cooperation and Exchange of the National Natural Science Foundation ( 81220108014 ), the Natural Science Foundation of China ( 81171409 ), the Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Research Program (CAS: KSZD-EW-TZ-002) and the support of the “CAS Hundred Talents” program to XNZ. No funding sources contributed to preparing this manuscript.

Funding Information:
The authors are grateful to the children and parents who madethis research possible. The authors also wish to thank the researchstaff of the Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pedi-atric Neuroscience for help in participant recruitment, assessment,data collection and data entry, as well as Ms. Hallie Brown for edi-torial suggestions of an earlier version of the manuscript. We alsothank the staff of NYU Center for Brain Imaging, Mr. Keith Sanzen-bach, Dr. Pablo Velasco and Dr. Edward Vessel for their support.Many of the datasets included in this manuscript were deposited, asfully anonymized data, in the ADHD200 database (http://fcon, and/or the Autism Brain Imag-ing Data Exchange repository (ABIDE; http://fcon and/or the National Database for AutismResearch (NDAR;

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


  • ADHD
  • Image intraclass correlation coefficient (I2C2)
  • Intraclass correlation coefficient
  • Resting state fMRI
  • Test-retest reliability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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