This article focuses on the changing organization and profession of academic science. Over the past 35 years, the commercialization of academic research has become an increasingly prominent aspect of university activity. The participation of universities in technology transfer (TT) endeavors, mainly through patenting and licensing of research results, serves as an important trigger for a re-evaluation of the nature of the profession of academic scientists. In this review paper, we highlight the major changes in the organization and profession of academic science including shifts in academic logics, in the governance of academic science and in the norms of the academic profession. We summarize the literature review by highlighting the individual-level effects on academic professionals and suggest important directions for further research.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
- Bayh-Dole act
- academic entrepreneurship
- intellectual property rights
- professional norms
- research commercialization
- technology transfer
- university governance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Business and International Management
- Strategy and Management
- Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management