Sex differences in symptomatology from continuous missile exposure

Avital Laufer, Yafit Levin, Marc Gelkopf, Laura Crompton, Zehava Solomon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The study assessed sex differences in symptomatology resulting from continuous traumatic stress (CTS). In CTS the trauma is ongoing and seemingly endless. Method: The sample comprised 384 Israelis (41% males and 59% females) who were exposed to nine years of rocket attacks. Measures: Objective exposure (personal exposure, near miss, loss of close other); Subjective exposure (sense of helplessness, loss of bodily control); Posttraumatic stress checklist; BSI-18 (examining anxiety, depression, and somatization). Results: Sex differences were found in subjective but not in objective exposure. Three profiles were found: “Resilient with some somatization,” “Symptomatically moderate” and “Symptomatically high.” Higher percentages of women were found in the more symptomatic profiles. Comparisons indicated that women who were classified as resilient had more symptoms than resilient men, and that symptomatic women had elevated symptoms compared to symptomatic men. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that women pay a heavier price for their CTS exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-26
Number of pages8
JournalIsrael Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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