Sex and regeneration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Regeneration is usually regarded as a unique plant or some animal species process. In reality, regeneration is a ubiquitous process in all multicellular organisms. It ranges from response to wounding by healing the wounded tissue to whole body neoforming (remaking of the new body). In a larger context, regeneration is one facet of two reproduction schemes that dominate the evolu-tion of life. Multicellular organisms can propagate their genes asexually or sexually. Here I present the view that the ability to regenerate tissue or whole-body regeneration is also determined by the sexual state of the multicellular organisms (from simple animals such as hydra and planaria to plants and complex animals). The above idea is manifested here by showing evidence that many organisms, organs, or tissues show inhibited or diminished regeneration capacity when in reproductive status compared to organs or tissues in nonreproductive conditions or by exposure to sex hormones.

Original languageEnglish
Article number937
Issue number9
StatePublished - 19 Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the author. Li-censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Asexual propagation
  • Maturation
  • Multicellular organisms
  • Regeneration
  • Wound repair

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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