Objectives To compare hematologic and serological parameters among patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS), dry eye syndrome (DES) and controls, and validate a novel multiplex-serology method for identifying auto-antibodies in these populations. Methods In a clinic-based case-control study a total of 422 participants were recruited, including 91 with SS, 120 DES, and 211 controls (age and sex frequency-matched). We measured blood counts, anti-nuclear-antibodies (ANA), anti-SSA/SSB, anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP), anti-double-stranded-DNA (DS-DNA), and rheumatoid factor (RF) using the “Immunodot” qualitative-ELISA assay. Immunoglobulins, C3 and C4 were measured by immune-fluorescence. Autoantibodies were also quantified with a newly-developed method using glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins of SSA/Ro 52 and 60kD and SSB/La (multiplex-serology), measuring median fluorescence intensity (MFI). Results Among DES patients, only 2% (95%CI: 0.36–6.3) had positive immune serology. SS patients had lower lymphocyte, hemoglobin and C3 levels but higher prevalence of RF, ANA, anti-SSA/B and higher IgG and MFI levels, compared to DES and controls (P<0.001). Presence of anti-SSA/Ro-52kD was associated with SS [odds ratio (OR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46–2.88]. Anti-SSB/La was inversely associated with DES (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.65–1.00) compared to controls. Positivity to RF (adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 1.78–14.21), ANA (OR = 14.75, 95%CI: 4.09–53.17), or combination of anti-SSA/B (OR = 20.97, 95%CI: 4.60–95.54) were more likely in SS compared to DES. The novel multiplex-serology method correctly identified anti-SSA/B autoantibodies by ELISA among SS, DES patients and controls (sensitivity = 1.0, negative-predictive-value = 1.0). Conclusions Serologic parameters distinguish SS from DES patients and controls. A newly-developed multiplex-serology technique may be useful to detect autoantibodies in large epidemiologic studies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The study was supported by the “Israel Cancer Association” (grant number: 8037815 to OP) https://en.cancer.org.il/ The funders do not play any role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2020 Ben-Eli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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