This paper provides new relative sea level data inferred from coastal archaeological sites located along the Turkish coasts of the Gulf of Fethye (8 sites), and Israel, between Akziv and Caesarea (5 sites). The structures selected are those that, for effective functioning, can be accurately related to sea level at the time of their construction. Thus their positions with respect to present sea level provide a measure of the relative sea level change since their time of construction. Useful information was obtained from the investigated sites spanning an age range of ~2.3-~1.6 ka BP. The inferred changes in relative sea level for the two areas are distinctly different, from a rise of 2.41 to 4.50 m in Turkey and from 0 to 0.18 m in Israel. Sea level change is the combination of several processes, including vertical tectonics, glacio-hydro-isostatic signals associated with the last glacial cycle, and changes in ocean volume. For the Israel section, the present elevations of the MIS-5.5 Tyrrhenian terraces occur at a few meters above present sea level and vertical tectonic displacements are small. Data from GPS and tide gauge measurements also indicate that any recent vertical movements are small. The MIS-5.5 shorelines are absent from the investigated section of the Turkish coast, consistent with crustal subsidence associated with the Hellenic Arc. The isostatic signals for the Israel section of the coast are also small (ranging from -0.11 mm/yr to 0.14 mm/yr, depending on site and earth model) and the observed (eustatic) average sea level change, corrected for this contribution, is a rise of 13.5 ± 2.6 cm during the past ~2 ka. This is attributed to the time-integrated contribution to sea level from a combination of thermal expansion and other increases in ocean volume. The observed sea levels from the Turkish sites, in contrast, indicate a much greater rise of up to 2.2 mm/yr since 2.3 ka BP occurring in a wide area between Knidos and Kekova. The isostatic signal here is also one of a rising sea level (of up to ~1 mm/yr and site and earth-model dependent) and the corrected tectonic rate of land subsidence is ~1.48 mm/yr. This is the primary cause of dramatic relative sea level rise for this part of the coast.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are thankful to Eng. Paolo Gaburro and Cap. Mustafà Yiltir for their skilled assistance during marine surveys in Turkey. The anonymous reviewers and Norm Catto and Sanja Faivre improved this paper with their suggestions. This study has been partially funded by INGV , ENEA , Leon Recanati Institute , Australian National University and MIUR – Prin 2006, Grant Project “Il ruolo del riaggiustamento isostatico post-glaciale nelle variazioni del livello marino globale e Mediterraneo: nuovi vincoli geofisici, geologici ed archeologici”, coordinator Prof. Giorgio Spada.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth-Surface Processes