BACKGROUND: Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter are highly prevalent among children. Reports on risk factors of patients infected with all three pathogens, not simultaneously, are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for multiple infection with Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter in the same child. METHODS: Using the Israel Sentinel Laboratory-Based Surveillance Network, we conducted a retrospective observational case-case-control study among children aged 0-9 years. A case was defined as a child infected with Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter at different occasions between January 1999 and December 2020. A control was defined as a child infected with a single pathogen once, during the same period. Logistic regression models were applied to determine the association between multiple infections and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 109 cases (0.1%) infected with Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter, and 86,511 controls (99.9%) infected with only one bacteria type. In a multivariable analysis, we showed that being Jewish (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.3-4.4), having residency in Jerusalem (OR 3.2, 95%CI 1.3-7.7), or in the southern district (OR 3.7, 95%CI 1.5-8.8) were independent risk factors for multiple infection. CONCLUSIONS: Although very rare, non-simultaneous infection with multiple bacteria does occur in Israel. National and local authorities should promote programs to encourage proper hygiene practices, which are culture-adjusted.
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Israel Medical Association Journal|
|State||Published - 1 Jun 2022|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (all)