Resistance gene analog polymorphisms (RGAPs) in wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) and their ecological associations

Pan Dong, Yu Ming Wei, Guo Yue Chen, Wei Li, Eviatar Nevo, You Liang Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Using the 8 specific primer pairs based on the conserved motifs of plant resistance genes, the plant disease resistance gene analog polymorphisms (RGAPs) in 15 wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) populations from Israel had been detected. High genetic variations at the RGAP loci were observed in T. dicoccoides populations. A total of 254 discernible bands were obtained among 115 accessions, and 192 bands (75.6%) were polymorphic. Each genotype had a unique banding profile, and the genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.094 to 0.862. In T. dicoccoides, the proportion of polymorphic loci (P), the genetic diversity (He) and Shannon's information index were 0.756, 0.362 and 0.541, respectively. The proportion of polymorphic loci (P) per population averaged 0.732 (range: 0.515-0.932); genetic diversity (He) averaged 0.271 (range: 0.212-0.338); and Shannon's information index averaged 0.404 (range: 0.310-0.493). The coefficients of genetic distance (D) among populations averaged 0.107 (range: 0.043-0.178), and the results of Mantel test (r = 0.168, P = 0.091) showed that the estimates of genetic distance were geographically independent. Neighbor-joining cluster analysis suggested that the genetic relationships of T. dicoccoides populations were associated with their ecogeographic distribution. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and the coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) values revealed that most of the variations were presented within populations, although significant differences among populations and regions were also detected. The values of P and Shannon's information index were negatively correlated with the two factors: Tdd (day-night temperature difference) and Ev (mean annual evaporation), whereas they were positively correlated with one water factor: Rn (mean annual rainfall). The correlation matrix between He in the RGAPs and geographic variables contained 20 significant (P < 0.05) correlations. The present study established that T. dicoccoides in Israel had a considerable amount of genetic variations at RGAP loci at least partly correlated with ecological factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-136
Number of pages16
JournalGenetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 program 2006AA10Z179 and 2006AA10Z1F8), the Key Technologies R&D Program of China (2006BAD01A02-23 and 2006BAD13B02), and the FANEDD project (200357 and 200458) from Ministry of Education, China. Y.-M. Wei was supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of China (NECT-05-0814). Y.-L. Zheng was supported by the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Teams in University of China (IRT0453). E. Nevo acknowledges the support of the Discount Bank Chair of Evolutionary Biology and the Ancell–Teicher Research Foundation of Molecular Genetics and Evolution.


  • Ecological factor
  • Genetic diversity
  • Population structure
  • Triticum dicoccoides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science


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