RESIC: A Tool for Comprehensive Adenosine to Inosine RNA Editing Site Identification and Classification

Dean Light, Roni Haas, Mahmoud Yazbak, Tal Elfand, Tal Blau, Ayelet T. Lamm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, the most prevalent type of RNA editing in metazoans, is carried out by adenosine deaminases (ADARs) in double-stranded RNA regions. Several computational approaches have been recently developed to identify A-to-I RNA editing sites from sequencing data, each addressing a particular issue. Here, we present RNA Editing Sites Identification and Classification (RESIC), an efficient pipeline that combines several approaches for the detection and classification of RNA editing sites. The pipeline can be used for all organisms and can use any number of RNA-sequencing datasets as input. RESIC provides (1) the detection of editing sites in both repetitive and non-repetitive genomic regions; (2) the identification of hyper-edited regions; and (3) optional exclusion of polymorphism sites to increase reliability, based on DNA, and ADAR-mutant RNA sequencing datasets, or SNP databases. We demonstrate the utility of RESIC by applying it to human, successfully overlapping and extending the list of known putative editing sites. We further tested changes in the patterns of A-to-I RNA editing, and RNA abundance of ADAR enzymes, following SARS-CoV-2 infection in human cell lines. Our results suggest that upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to mock, the number of hyper editing sites is increased, and in agreement, the activity of ADAR1, which catalyzes hyper-editing, is enhanced. These results imply the involvement of A-to-I RNA editing in conceiving the unpredicted phenotype of COVID-19 disease. RESIC code is open-source and is easily extendable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number686851
JournalFrontiers in Genetics
StatePublished - 23 Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Light, Haas, Yazbak, Elfand, Blau and Lamm.


  • ADAR
  • epitranscriptome
  • hyper-editing
  • interferon
  • SARS-CoV-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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