The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating emotional consequences. The present study aimed to examine the relationships between personal resources and emotional distress while accounting for COVID-19–related variables. Seven hundred and seventy-seven (N = 777) participants completed demographic, mastery, forgiveness, optimism, resilience, PTSD, and anxiety questionnaires. A stepped hierarchical multiple regression revealed that mastery, forgiveness, cultural group, age, acquaintance with a person who died of COVID-19, and having been infected with COVID-19 contributed significantly to the explained variance in PTSD symptoms. Mastery, forgiveness, optimism, age, and acquaintance with a person who died of COVID-19 contributed significantly to the explained variance in anxiety. However, resilience was not found to significantly contribute to the explained variance in PTSD symptoms or anxiety. This study demonstrates the importance of being aware of both PTSD symptoms and anxiety associated with COVID-19. Thus, it is suggested that therapy programs should pay special attention to mastery and forgiveness as coping resources. In addition, among medical and mental-health personnel awareness should be given to individuals who have been in close acquaintance with those who died of COVID-19, those with COVID-19 risk factors, and those who have been infected. Special attention should also be paid to minority groups as they might tend to experience more emotional distress and trauma symptoms.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
No funding was received for conducting this study. The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose. The study has been approved by the University’s Ethics Committee.
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
- emotional stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Psychology
- Applied Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health