Relationships among breeding site characteristics and adult population size of the fire salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata

Iftah Sinai, Ori Segev, Avi Koplovich, Alan R. Templeton, Leon Blaustein, Lior Blank

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Effective amphibian conservation requires knowledge of both the aquatic and terrestrial phases of life. As extinction probabilities are a function of population size, it is crucial not only to understand the habitat requirement of the species but also to estimate its population size. In this work, we studied the endangered fire salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata, and analyzed the population size at a total of 14 sites—eight temporary and six permanent. For identifying the local and landscape scales factors predicting S. infraimmaculata’s breeding sites we monitored 54 aquatic sites. We found that permanent sites support larger populations of adult salamanders. The breeding site characteristics analyses revealed that at the local scale water depth and shade were the most important factors and two regional variables were found to be important: proximity to another breeding site and elevation. This work provides two clear conservation implications permanent breeding sites will support much larger populations compared to temporary sites, particularly if close to other potential breeding sites, and both terrestrial and aquatic features are important for a site to be suitable for breeding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2999-3012
Number of pages14
Issue number14
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Amphibian
  • Generalized linear models
  • Landscape
  • Scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science


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