Background: Social support is consistently associated with reduced risk of depression. Few studies have investigated how this relationship may be modified by alcohol use, the effects of which may be particularly relevant in traumatized populations in which rates of alcohol use are known to be high. Methods: In 2008 a representative sample of 1622 Jewish and Palestinian citizens in Israel were interviewed by phone at two time points during a period of ongoing terrorism and war threat. Two multivariable mixed effects regression models were estimated to measure the longitudinal association of social support from family and friends on depression symptoms. Three-way interaction terms between social support, alcohol use and time were entered into the models to test for effect modification. Results: Findings indicated that increased family social support was associated with less depression symptomatology (p= <.01); this relationship was modified by alcohol use and time (p= <.01). Social support from friends was also associated with fewer depression symptoms (p= <.01) and this relationship was modified by alcohol use and time as well (p= <.01). Stratified analyses in both models revealed that the effect of social support was stronger for those who drank alcohol regularly than those who did not drink or drank rarely. Conclusions: These findings suggest that social support is a more important protective factor for depression among regular drinkers than among those who do not drink or drink rarely in the context of political violence. Additional research is warranted to determine whether these findings are stable in other populations and settings.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Drug and Alcohol Dependence|
|State||Published - 1 Jul 2014|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was made possible in part by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (Hobfoll and Canetti; RO1MH073687 ). Mr. Kane's contribution was supported by a National Institute for Drug Abuse training grant in Drug Dependence Epidemiology ( T32DA007292 ). Dr. Zalta's contribution was supported by the Rush Center for Urban Health Equity ( NIH-NHLBI 1P50HL105189 ). Dr. Hall's contribution to this work was partially supported by the National Institute of Mental Health T32 in Psychiatric Epidemiology ( T32MH014592-35 ) and through the Fogarty Global Health Fellows Program ( 1R25TW009340-01 ). These funding sources had no further role in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the paper for publication.
© 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
- Alcohol use
- Political violence
- Prolonged conflict
- Social support
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Pharmacology (medical)