Reappraisal of the Genus Exsudoporus (Boletaceae) Worldwide Based on Multi-Gene Phylogeny, Morphology and Biogeography, and Insights on Amoenoboletus

Alona Yu Biketova, Matteo Gelardi, Matthew E. Smith, Giampaolo Simonini, Rosanne A. Healy, Yuichi Taneyama, Gianrico Vasquez, Ádám Kovács, László G. Nagy, Solomon P. Wasser, Ursula Peintner, Eviatar Nevo, Britt A. Bunyard, Alfredo Vizzini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The boletoid genera Butyriboletus and Exsudoporus have recently been suggested by some researchers to constitute a single genus, and Exsudoporus was merged into Butyriboletus as a later synonym. However, no convincing arguments have yet provided significant evidence for this congeneric placement. In this study, we analyze material from Exsudoporus species and closely related taxa to assess taxonomic and phylogenetic boundaries between these genera and to clarify species delimitation within Exsudoporus. Outcomes from a multilocus phylogenetic analysis (ITS, nrLSU, tef1-α and rpb2) clearly resolve Exsudoporus as a monophyletic, homogenous and independent genus that is sister to Butyriboletus. An accurate morphological description, comprehensive sampling, type studies, line drawings and a historical overview on the nomenclatural issues of the type species E. permagnificus are provided. Furthermore, this species is documented for the first time from Israel in association with Quercus calliprinos. The previously described North American species Exsudoporus frostii and E. floridanus are molecularly confirmed as representatives of Exsudoporus, and E. floridanus is epitypified. The eastern Asian species Leccinum rubrum is assigned here to Exsudoporus based on molecular evidence, and a new combination is proposed. Sequence data from the original material of the Japanese Boletus kermesinus were generated, and its conspecificity with L. rubrum is inferred as formerly presumed based on morphology. Four additional cryptic species from North and Central America previously misdetermined as either B. frostii or B. floridanus are phylogenetically placed but remain undescribed due to the paucity of available material. Boletus weberi (syn. B. pseudofrostii) and Xerocomus cf. mcrobbii cluster outside of Exsudoporus and are herein assigned to the recently described genus Amoenoboletus. Biogeographic distribution patterns are elucidated, and a dichotomous key to all known species of Exsudoporus worldwide is presented.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101
JournalJournal of Fungi
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported in part by the University of Haifa (to A.Yu.B., E.N. and S.P.W.), the Mycological Society of Israel (to A.Yu.B.), US National Science Foundation grant DEB-2106130 (to M.E.S.), the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) at the University of Florida, the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station’s Ordway-Swisher research grants and the USDA NIFA (Hatch 1001991, McIntire-Stennis 1011527) (to M.E.S. and R.A.H.).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • Biogeography
  • Boletales
  • Bolete diversity
  • Molecular phylogeny
  • Taxonomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Plant Science
  • Microbiology (medical)

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