Reading fluency: The whole is more than the parts

Tami Katzir, Youngsuk Kim, Maryanne Wolf, Beth O'Brien, Becky Kennedy, Maureen Lovett, Robin Morris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined the relative contributions of phonological awareness, orthographic pattern recognition, and rapid letter naming to fluent word and connected-text reading within a dyslexic sample of 123 children in second and third grades. Participants were assessed on a variety of fluency measures and reading subskills. Correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were carried out to explore these relationships. The results demonstrate that phonological awareness, rapid letter naming, and orthographic pattern recognition contribute to word-reading skills. Furthermore, rapid naming, orthographic pattern recognition, and word reading fluency moderately predict different dimensions of connected-text reading (i.e., rate, accuracy, and comprehension) whereas phonological awareness contributes only to the comprehension dimension of connected-text reading. The findings support the multidimensional nature of fluency in which the whole is more than its parts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-82
Number of pages32
JournalAnnals of Dyslexia
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Comprehension
  • Dyslexia
  • Phonological awareness
  • RAN
  • Reading fluency
  • Word reading

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Speech and Hearing


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